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逗號的用法匯總集合

時間:2019-11-13 11:04:29本文內容及圖片來源于讀者投稿,如有侵權請聯系[email protected] 美婷 我要投稿

  中文也有逗號啦,反正小編也常常會把他們兩個弄混,不過這一次我有法寶,看下面,小編在這給大家帶來逗號的用法匯總集合,歡迎大家借鑒參考!

  亂用標點或漏用標點,是同學們日常寫作中常犯的錯誤。一方面是因為大家對標點不夠重視,認為不就是一個“點”嗎?有什么大不了。一方面也是因為沒有專門學習過標點的用法。

  今天我們詳細講解下逗號的用法,希望大家對功能強大的逗號多一點了解,以后寫作多一點真誠,少一點隨意。

  廢話不多說,先上一句看起來像被雷劈過的句子

  What we today call American folk art was, indeed, art of, by, and for ordinary, everyday 'folks' who, with increasing prosperity and leisure, created a market for art of all kinds, and especially for portraits.

  你內心的mmp我已經清楚地聽到了。等我們把用法都講過一遍,你就知道這里面的每一個逗號都有什么用,以及這句話到底什么意思。

  逗號的六種用法

  1. 分隔連續并列的各項

  3個或以上列舉

  The street vendor sold watches, necklaces, bracelets, and earrings.

  The pitcher adjusted his cap, pawed the ground, and peered over his shoulder.

  The exercise instructor told us to inhale, exhale, and relax.

  2個并列列舉用and就可以了,不用逗號

  Chen Speaks Mandarin and Cantonese.

  兩個描述型的詞(descriptive word)并列時,逗號的使用要根據語義。

  Joe peered into the hot, still-smoking engine. “熱的”,“還在冒煙”的引擎

  如果并列的兩個描述型詞語之間加上and聽起來很自然(natural),例如hot and still-smoking 既熱又還在冒煙的,兩者的并列很自然,就可以用and隔開。

  但是 Tony wore a pale green tuxedo. 這個句子里pale淺色和green綠色如果中間加“and”就聽起來很不自然,所以就不要加逗號。

  The warm blankets comforted us as we heard the cold north wind blow through the pines. 這個句子里 "cold and north" “既冷又朝北的窗子”聽起來就很奇怪,所以就不要用逗號隔開了。

  其實大家可以試著用“既...又..." 翻譯試試,如果描述的維度接近,聽著順耳,就是可以用逗號隔開的。

  2.用于開頭,引入一個獨立分句(independent clause)

  : 獨立分句就是能夠獨立存在的句子;與其對應的是從屬句/從句,不能獨立存在 如although… 或 When... 引導的都是從句,都不能單獨存在。

  看幾個例子

  Therefore, I plan to quit smoking.

  As a result, I feel terrible right now.

  Nervously, I threw away my cigarettes.

  Having smoked for 16 years, I find it difficult to quit.

  *Because I have a chronic cough, my doctor recommended that I quit immediately.

  *Although he had been first in the checkout line, Deion let an elderly woman go ahead of him.

  *When the meal was finished, Rachel washed up and made coffee.

  上面三句加*的句子是可以把主句和從句位置調換的,調換以后逗號可以省略(不會出現歧義)

  *My doctor recommended that I quit immediately because I have a chronic cough.

  *Deion let an elderly woman go ahead of him although he had been first in the checkout line.

  *Rachel washed up and made coffee when the meal was finished.

  : 如果開頭部分很短,有時可省略 After the war many soldiers stayed in France. 不過仍然建議大家每次都用逗號,避免出錯。

  3. 作插入語,提供一個非必要的信息

  ①The weather, windy and wild, created twenty-foot swells on the lake.

  ②Sue Dodd, who goes to aerobics class with me, was in a serious car accident.

  插入語的前后都要使用逗號,插入的內容只是額外補充(extra information),并不是必要信息。判斷一個內容是不是一個句子里的必要信息,只需把該內容刪掉以后,再看句意是否完整。

  比如上面這個句子,如果去掉who goes to aerobics class with me,就剩下

  Sue Dodd was in a serious car accident. 句子信息仍然是完整清晰的,說明插入的部分是非必要信息,一定要加逗號。

  但如果是下面這句:

  ③The woman who goes to aerobics class with me was in a serious car accident.

  如果去掉who goes to aerobics class with me,原句就剩

  The woman was in a serious car accident. 句意就不清楚不完整了 “到底是哪個女人出車禍了?” 因此這個信息是句中必要信息,不能使用雙逗號作為插入語。

  大家應該已經發現②③就是平時常提到的非限定定語從句和限定性定語從句。

  “限定”就是必須要修飾的信息,一旦缺少該信息句意就不完整,如句③

  “非限定”就是沒有限定作用,只補充非必要信息,刪除也不影響句意完整,如句②

  我們再看兩個非限定定語從句的例子

  Marty’s computer, which his wife got him as a birthday gift, occupies all his spare time. (去掉雙逗號插入的部分,句子信息仍然完整清晰 Marty的電腦占據了他全部的業余時間)

  Hawaii, which became the fiftieth state in 1959, is made up of eight major islands. (去掉雙逗號插入的部分,句子信息仍然完整清晰。夏威夷由八個島嶼組成。

  我們再對比下面兩組句子:

  ①Watership Down, a novel by Richard Adams, is the most thrilling adventure story I’ve ever read.

  如果去掉 ,a novel by Richard Adams, 原句變成 Watership Down is the most thrilling adventure story I've ever read. Watership Down這本書是我讀過的最激動人心的探險小說。 ---- 句子信息完整清晰。

  ②Richard Adam’s novel Watership Down is the most thrilling adventure story I’ve ever read.

  如果去掉書名 Watership Down 原句變成Richard Adam's novel is the most thrilling adventure story I’ve ever read. 句子信息就不清晰 "到底是Richard Adam的哪一本探險小說呢?” 所以這句話不是插入語,而是句子必要信息,不能用雙逗號。可見插入語雙逗號的使用并不是隨隨便便,是有嚴格用法的。

  4.連接兩個獨立句子

  能夠連接兩個獨立句子的并列連詞有七個: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so (可記做FANBOYS)

  兩個獨立句子并列,使用逗號+連詞

  Sam closed all the windows, but the predicted thunderstorm never arrived.

  I like wearing comfortable clothing, so I buy oversize shirts and sweaters.

  Peggy doesn’t envy the skinny models in magazines, for she is happy with her own well-rounded body.

  Kelly was a convicted criminal, yet many people admired him.

  如果單句都很短,可以省略逗號

  Many people left but the band played on. (句子短,逗號可省)

  I made a wrong turn so I doubled back. (句子短,逗號可省略)

  如果主語詞只有一個詞,動詞卻有兩個,不要使用逗號

  The doctor stared over his bifocals and lectured me about smoking.

  (一個主語the doctor,兩個動詞 stared over和lectured,所以不用逗號)

  Dean switched the lamp on and off and then tapped it with his fingers.

  (一個主語Dean,兩個動詞 switched和tapped,所以不用逗號)

  特別提醒: 能夠連接兩個獨立句子的并列連詞只有FANBOYS 這七個,大家平時往往使用的是連接詞(是副詞), 不是連詞,如however, later, therefore, consequently, on the other hand, as a result, thus, instead, even, then等等。

  最經典的錯誤長這樣 Some of the food crops failed, however, the cotton did quite well.

  however不是連詞,是副詞,只是連接詞,不能連接兩個獨立的句子。

  這句可以改為

  Some of the food crops failed. However, the cotton did quite well.

  也可以用正宗連詞FANBOYS中的一個

  Some of the food crops failed, but the cotton did quite well.

  除了FANBOYS并列連詞,還有一類很重要的連詞 -- 主從連詞,如when, where, while, unless, after, before, since, because, so that, although, if, until 等,它們不能連接兩個獨立的句子,但可以連接一個主句和一個從句,例如前面用的例句

  Because I have a chronic cough, my doctor recommended that I quit immediately. (Because引導的是原因狀語從句,注意是從句,是不能獨立存在的,后半句是可獨立存在的主句)

  5.直接引語里的逗號

  使用直接引語時,要使用逗號隔開。

  The carnival barker cried, “Step right up and win a prize!”

  “Please remember to watch the gap,” the conductor warned.

  “I’m sorry,” said the restaurant hostess, “You’ll have to wait.”

  6. 用作結尾補充附加的逗號(tag comma)

  It is not logical, is it?

  I love you, too.

  I never liked long walks, especially in winter.

  PS. 其實還有第7種用法(例如書信里的"Dear John, "和“Sincerely yours, " 但這種用法只在特定文本里使用,且大家比較熟悉,就不再單獨列出來講解了)

  好了,逗號的用法講完了,我們重看開篇這個變態的句子

  What we today call American folk art was, indeed, art of, by, and for ordinary, everyday 'folks' who, with increasing prosperity and leisure, created a market for art of all kinds, and especially for portraits.

  , indeed,

  , with increasing prosperity and leisure,

  這兩個見用法3插入語

  of, by, and for

  見用法1第一條講解 --三項并列列舉

  ordinary, everyday

  見用法1第三條講解--兩個描述型詞語并列,如果加”and“后聽起來仍然順耳(natural) 則可以加逗號

  , and especially for portraits.

  見用法6 -- 結尾附加信息

  這句話的中文意思是: 我們今天所說的美國民間藝術,確實,就是屬于人民的、被人民創造的、為人民而創造的藝術,隨著物質財富和閑暇時間的日益增加,這些普普通通平平凡凡的人們為所有藝術,特別是肖像藝術,開創了市場。

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